1997 Program and Abstracts

1997 Program and Abstracts

Third International Congress on Biomedical Peer Reviewand Global Communications

Following the success of 2 previous Congresses on Peer Review
held in 1989 and 1993, we aim to further the science of editorial
peer review through this third congress.

Thursday, September 18 

Reporting, Peer Review, and Authorship: The Future

Drummond Rennie* (United States)

Trends in Authorship

Moderator: Drumond Rennie

Professors Responsible for Increase in Authorship

Joost P Drenth* (The Netherlands)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):219-221. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.219.

Authorship Policies in US Medical Schools: Report of a Survey

Anne Hudson Jones* (United States)


Research on Authorship

Wendela P Hoen, Henk Walvoort and John Overbeke* (The Netherlands)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):217-218. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.217.

Honorary Authors, Ghost Authors, and Medical Writers in Peer-Reviewed Medical Journals

Annette Flanagin, Stephanie Phillips, Phil Fontanarosa,* Lisa Carey, Brian P Pace, George D Lundberg, AND Drummond Rennie (United States)


Conflicts of Interest and Economic Considerations

Moderator: Roy Pitkin (United States)

Financial Interest and Disclosure in Scientific Publications

Sheldon Krimsky* (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):225-226. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.225.

A Survey of Journal Conflict of Interest Policies

Richard M Glass* and Mindy Schneiderman (United States)


Evaluating the BMJ Guidelines on Economic Submissions: Prospective Audit of Economic Submissions to the BMJ and The Lancet

Tom Jefferson, *Richard Smith, Mike Drummond, Rajendra Kale, and Yunni Yi (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):275-277. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.275.

The Quality of Peer Review

Moderator: Richard Horton (United Kingdom)

Changes During Peer Review: Characterizing the Evolution of a Clinical Paper

Gretchen P Purcell* and Frank Davidoff (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):227-228. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.227.

A Survey of Journal Editors Regarding the Review Process for Original Clinical Research

Drothy L Lebeau,* William C Steinmann, and Robert K Michael (United States)


Consistency of Reviewer Ratings and Impact on Editor Manuscript Decisions

Michael L Callaham* and Joseph Waeckerle (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):229-231. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.229.

What Makes a Good Reviewer and What Makes a Good Review?

Susan Van Rooyen, Fiona Godlee, Stephen Evans, Richard Smith, and Nick Black* (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):231-233. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.231.

Peer Review and Masking

Moderator: Povl Riis (Denmark)

Read a news summary on this session (NEED TO FIX)

The Effect on the Quality of Peer Review of Blinding Reviewers and Asking Them to Sign Their Reports: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Fiona Godlee, Catharine R. Gale, and Christopher N.Martyn* (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):237-240. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.237.

The Effect of Blinding and Unmasking on the Quality of Peer Review : A Randomized Controlled Trial

Susan Van Rooyen, *Fiona Godlee, Stephen Evans, Richard Smith, and Nick Black (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):234-237. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.234.

Masking Author Identity in Peer Review: Does It Improve Peer Review Quality?

Amy Justice,* Mildred Cho, Margaret Winker, Jesse Berlin, Drummond Rennie, Mike Berkwits, Michael Callaham, Phil Fontanarosa, Erica Frank, David Goldmann, Steven Goodman, Roy Pitkin, Rohit Varma, Joseph Waeckerle (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):240-242. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.240.

Masking Author Identity in Peer Review: What Factors Influence Masking Success?

Mildred Cho,* Amy Justice, Margaret Winker, Jesse Berlin, Joseph Waeckerle, Drummond Rennie, William Appelgate, Ken Rothman, Mike Berkwits, Michael Callaham, Phil Fontanarosa, Erica Frank, David Goldmann, Steven Goodman, Roy Pitkin, Rohit Varma (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):243-245. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.243.

Friday, September 19 (* indicates speaker)

Peer Review, Misconduct, and Progress in Science

John C Bailar* (United States)

Publication Bias: Transcultural Issues

Moderator: Tim Empkie (Czech Republic)

Publication Bias in Two Spanish Medical Journals

Carlos Campillo* (Spain)


Papers Submitted From Outside and Inside the United States: An Analysis of Reviewer Bias

Ann M Link* (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):246-247. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.246.

Assessing the Quality of Reports on Placebo-Controlled Trials Published in English or German Language

Christoph Junker* and Matthias Egger (Switzerland and United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):247-249. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.247.

Publication Bias: Negative Results, Unpublished Data, and Sex

Moderator: David Moher (Canada)

Read a news summary on this session (NEED TO FIX)

Publication Bias and the Passive Smoke Research:Interviews With Investigators

Anastasia L Misakian* and Lisa A Bero (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):250-253. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.250.

Characteristics of Unpublished Research and Reasons for Failure to Publish

Ellen Weber,* Michael L Callaham, Robert L Wears, Christopher Barton, and Gary P Young (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):257-259. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.257.

Data on File Cited in Pharmaceutical Advertisements: What are They?

Andrew Herxheimer(United Kingdom)


Is There a Sex Bias in Choosing Editors? Epidemiology Journals as an Example

Kay Dickerson,* Lisa Fredman, Katherine M. Flegal, Jane D Scott, and Barbara Crawley (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):260-264. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.260.

Publication Bias: Authors, Reviewers, Unconventional Work, and Amnesty

Moderator: John C Bailar (United States)

Read a news summary on this session (Need to fix)

Reviewing the Reviews: The Case of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Simon Wessely,* John Joyce, and Sophia Rabe-Hesketh (United Kingdom)

Abstract  |Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):264-266. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.264.

Peer Reviewer Bias Against Unconventional Medicine?

Edzard Ernst* and Karl-Ludwig Resch (United Kingdom and Germany)

Abstract  | Article  published in J R Soc Med. 2000;93:164-167

Does Peer Review Favor the Conceptual Framework of Orthodox Medicine? A Randomized Controlled Study

Karl-Ludwig Resch,* Edzard Ernst, and John Garrow (Germany and United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in Complement Ther Med. 1999;7(1):19–23. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0965-2299(99)80054-5.

Medical Editors Trial Amnesty (META)

Ian G Roberts* (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in BMJ. 1997; 315. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.315.7109.622.

Electronic Aids for Editors and Reviewers

Moderator: George Lundberg (United States)

Quality Criteria That Support Computer-Assisted Retrieval and Review of Scientific Data

Robert S Dewoskin* (United States)


A Software Program to Aid in Peer Review

Alvar Loria* and Gladys Faba, for the ARTEMISA Selection Committee (Mexico)


The News Media and Peer-Reviewed Publications

Moderator: George Lundberg (United States)

Read a news summary on this session (need to fix)

Peer-Reviewed Articles and Public Health: The “Mad Cow” Affair in Italian Newspapers

Nicola Petrosillos,* Maria Stella Aloisi, Enrico Girardi, Lucilla Rava, and Giuseppe Ippolito (Italy)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):292-294. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.292.

Randomized Controlled Trial to Determine the Effect of Press Releases From a General Medical Journal on the Quantity and Quality of Press Coverage

Diana Bozalis, Vikki Entwistle, and Richard Smith* (United States and United Kingdom)


Saturday, September 20 (* indicates speaker)

Peer Review and the Quality of “I” and “D” in IMRAD

Iain Chalmers* (United Kingdom)

The Editors and their Journals

Moderator: Magne Nylenna (Norway)

Are Medical Journal Editors Singing More Loudly and Preaching More?

Richard Smith* (United Kingdom)


A Comparison of the Opinions of Recognized Experts and Ordinary Readers as to What Topics a General Medical Journal Should Address

George D Lundberg,* Marshall Paul, and Helga Fritz (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):288-290. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.288.

Amateur Editors

John Garrow,* Michael Butterfield, Jacinta Marshall, and Alex Williamson (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):286-287. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.286.

What is the Lifespan of a Manuscript After Submission?

David McNamee* (United Kingdom)


Improving Quality: The Role of Abstracts and Related Literature

Moderator: Floyd Bloom (United States)

Reporting of Randomized Clinical Trial Descriptors and Use of Structured Abstracts

Roberta W Scherer* and Kay Dickersin (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):269-272. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.269.

Can the Accuracy of Abstracts Be Improved by Specific Instructions?

Roy M Pitkin* and Mary Ann Branagan (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):267-269. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.267.

The Perceived Value of Providing Peer Reviewers With Abstracts and Preprints of Related Published and Unpublished Papers

Christopher L Hatch* and Steven N Goodman (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):273-274. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.273.

Improving Quality of Systematic Reviews, Meta-analysis, and Controlled Trials

Moderator: Fiona Godlee (United Kingdom)

External Refereeing of Protocols for Systematic Reviews

Lisa A Bero,* Roberto Grilli, Jeremy Grimshaw, Emma Harvey, and Andrew D Oxman (United States, Italy, United Kingdom, and Norway)


Characteristics of Meta-analyses Submitted to a Medical Journal

Donna F Stroup, Stephen B Thacker, Carin M Olson,* and Richard M Glass(United States)


The Cochrane Collaboration: Its Impact on the Quality of Systematic Reviews

Alejandro R Jadad,* Deborah J Cook, Alison Jones, Terry Klassen, Michael Moher, Peter Tugwell, and David Moher (Canada)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):278-280. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.278.

The Quality of Discussion Sections in Reports of Controlled Trials Published in 1997 by Five Leading General Medical Journals

Michael Clark* and Iain Chalmers (United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):280-282. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.280.

When Things Go Wrong: Author Disputes, Legal Intrusions, and Fraud

Moderator: Richard Smith (United Kingdom)

Closing Some Legal Loopholes in the Peer Review Process

Philip C Swain* (United States)


Phenomena of Retraction: Reasons for Retraction and Citations to the Publications

John M Budd* and Mary Ellen Sievert (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):296-297. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.296.

Authorship: The Coins of the Realm, the Source of Complaints

Linda Wilcox (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):216-217. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.216.

The Journal Ombudsman: A Precursor to a Scientific Press Council?

Richard Horton (United Kingdom)


Poster Session Presentations

Thursday, September 18 (* indicates speaker)

Peer Review in Bangladesh: An Analysis From a Journal Perspective

Hasan Shareef Ahmed* (Bangladesh)

Abstract  | Article  published in Journal of Scholarly Publishing. 2003;34(4):236-248. doi: 10.3138/jsp.34.4.236.

The Nature of Statistical Input in Medical Research

Douglas G Altman,* Steven N Goodman, Frank Davidoff, and Richard Smith(United Kingdom and United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 2002;287(21):2817-2820. doi:10.1001/jama.287.21.2817.

Redundant Publication: Survey of Journal Editors and Authors

Deborah Barnes,* Veronica Yank, Lisa Bero, Drummond Rennie (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in J Med Ethics. 2003;29:109-114. doi:10.1136/jme.29.2.109.

An International Survey of Quality Control Procedures in Independent Drug Bulletins

Dominique Broclain, Pierre Chirac,* and Ellen L’Hoen(France)


The Role of Statistical Review in a New Journal

Julia Brown,* Janet Dunn, William Jones, David Machin, and Patricia Shevlin (United Kingdom and Singapore)


Relationship of Editorial Ratings of Reviewers to Reviewer Performance on a Standardized Test Instrument

Michael Callaham,* Jospeph Waeckerle, and William Baxt (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):229-231. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.229.

Commercial and Scientific Conflict in Biomedical Publishing: The Perspective of an International Pharmaceutical Company

Paul M Woodcock and Hamish Cameron* (United Kingdom)


The Effect of Informing Referees That Their Comments Would Be Exchanged on the Quality of Their Reviews

Savitri Das Sinha,* Peush Sahini, and Samiran Nundy (India)

Abstract  | Article  published in Natl Med J India. 1999; 12:21 0-1 3.

A Typology of Scientific Originality: Initial Validity Testing

Lynn Dirk* (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in Soc Stud Sci. 1999;29(5):765-776. doi: 10.1177/030631299029005004.

Time Trends and Recent Acceptance Rates for Publication of International Manuscripts in Leading US Medical Journals

Timothy C Fagan* (United States)


Is Peer Review Technologically Obsolete?

Susan Feigenbaum* and David M Levy (United States)


Use of Reviewers By Clinical Journals

John Garrow, Michael Butterfield, Jactina Marshall, and Alex Williamson* (United Kingdom)


Reviewers’ Attitudes Toward an Enhancement of the Peer-Review process

Robert J Goldberg* and James E Dalen (United States)


A Cost-Effectiveness Model of Peer Review
Stanley J. Heginbotham (United States)

Peer Review or Practical Reason? An Argumentative Approach

Richard Horton* (United Kingdom)


Civil War and Scientific Activity in the Former Yugoslav Republics

Rajiko Igic* (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in Scientometrics. 2002;53(3):447-452.

Statistical Inaccuracies in Peer-Reviewed Articles

Shelley Johnson* and Adel Mikhail (United States)


Evaluation of Three-Step Reviewing Process of Three Chinese Peer-Reviewed Journals

Liu Kelan* (China)


Peer Review and the Credibility of Scientific Biomedical Journals of Developing Countries

Guillermo J Padron* and Jose V Costales (Cuba)


A Structured Review of the Literature on Peer Review

Jean-Pierre Piere and John Overbeke* (The Netherlands)


Peer Review: Recommendation Is Based on Few Aspects

Karl-Ludwig Resch,* Annegret Franke, and Edzard Ernst (Germany and United Kingdom)


The Educational Role of Peer Review in a Medical Journal From a Developing Country

Humberto Reyes,* Ronald Kauffmann, and Max Andersen (Chile)


Attribution of Credit by Contribution

Timothy C Smith* and Peter V Scott (United Kingdom)


Earning Authorship: A Survey of Researcher’s Views

R Stacy,* P H Pearson, E F S Kaner, B G Vernon, J M Rankin, R S Bhopal, E McColl, L H Thomas, and H Rodgers(United Kingdom)

Abstract  | Article  published in BMJ. 1997; 314. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7086.1009.

Reference and Quotation Accuracy in the Major and Minor Infectious Disease Journals

Kelly J Warren,* Neal Bhatia, Winnie Teh, Matthew G Fleming, and Michael Lange(United States)


Selective Publication of Advanced Research from Eastern Europe in International Journals

Vasiliy Vlassov* (Russia)


Friday, September 19 (* indicates speaker)

Effect of Attendance at a Training Session on Peer Reviewer Quality and Performance

Michael L Callaham,* Robert Wears, and Joseph Waeckerle (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in Ann Emerg Med. 1998;32(3):318–322. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644(98)70007-1

Positive Outcome Bias and Other Limitations in the Selection of Research Abstracts for a Scientific Meeting

Michael Callaham, Robert L Wears, Ellen Weber,* Christopher Barton, and Gary Young (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):254-257. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.254.

Press Releases From Biomedical Publications and Their Impact on Mass Media

Vladimir De Semir,* Cristina Ribas, and Gemma Revuelta (Spain)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):294-295. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.294.

Are Scientific Publishers Amending Permissions Policies for the Digital Era?

Eamon Fennessy* (United States)


Publication Habits of Women and Men at Stanford University School of Medicine

Erica Frank* (United States)


Peer Review of Commissioned State-of-the-Art Papers

Liselotte Hojgaard* (Denmark)


The Scientific Paper: Fraudlent or Formative?

Richard Horton* (United Kingdom)


The Use of Systematic Reviews for Peer Reviewing

Tom Jefferson, Vittorio Demicheli, and John Hutton* (United Kingdom and Italy)


Nursing Home Research: The Positive Effect of Instructions for Authors on the Quality of Reported Research Ethics

Jason HT Karlawish,* Gavin W Hougham, Carol B Stocking, and Greg A Sachs (United States)


Information From reading a Journal Is Not Well Retained and Depends on the Motivation of the Reader

Catherine Kellert,* Christopher Bulstrode, Ailsa Hart, and Philip Fulford(United Kingdom)


Use of Bibliometric Measures to Assist the Peer Review Process in Neurosciences

Grant Lewison* and Wendy Ewert (United Kingdom)


Peer Review of Domestic and International Manuscripts in a Journal From the Scientific Periphery

Ana Marusic,* Tomislav Mestrovic, Mladen Petrovecki, and Matko Marusic (Croatia)


The Role of Grey Literature in Meta-Analysis

Laura M McAuley,* David Moher, and Peter Tugwell (Canada)

Abstract  | Article  published in Lancet. 2000; 356: 1228–31.

Realism and Idealism in Instructions to Referees

Shiela Mary McNab* (The Netherlands)


Gender Representation in the Editorial and Peer Review Processes

Anatasia L Misakian,* Renee Williard and Lisa A Bero (United States)


Ethical Problems in a Prospective Study of Submissions to a Medical Journal

Carin M Olson,* Richard M Glass, Donna F Stroup, and Stephen B Thacker (United States)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):290-291. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.290.

Evaluation of the Peer Review Process in Medicina Clinica (Spanish Journal of Internal Medicine)

JM Ribera,* F Cardellach, M Belmonte, F Lozano, E Feliu, C Rey-Joly, N Nonell, M Foz, C Rozman, J Ruiz, and J A Dotu (Spain)


Understanding the Process of Critical Reading

Patricia M Shevlin, *Julia M Brown, and A Vivenne Webb (United Kingdom)


Computer-Based Structured Reporting of Randomized Trials

Ida Sim,* DK Owens, and GD Rennels (United States)


Serial Journals of the Chinese Medical Association: The Present Status and the Improvement

You Suning* (China)


Selection of Abstracts for an Otolaryngology Meeting: Correlation of Blinding With Subsequent Publication

N. Wendell Todd* (United States)


Research Designs and Statistical Methods Used in Chinese Medical Journals

Wang Qian* and Zhang Boheng (China)

Abstract  | Article  published in JAMA. 1998;280(3):283-285. doi:10.1001/jama.280.3.283.

Getting the Most Out of Peer Review: Comparing Scientific and Lay Readers of Clinical Review Articles

Carolina Wellbery* (United States)


Conference on Peer Review and Global Communications

Sunday, September 21, 1997 (* indicates speaker)


Suzanne Fletcher, Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care (United States)

Debate – Resolved: By the Year 2020, Paper Biomedical Journals Will Be Extinct

Moderator: Suzanne Fletcher

The Proponent and View From the Internet Trenches

Ronald LaPorte, Global Health Network and the University of Pittsburgh (United States)

The Skeptic and View From the Ivory Tower

Jerome Kassirer, New England Journal of Medicine (United States)

Real-Life Experiences With Electronic Editing, Peer Review, and Publishing

Moderator: George D. Lundberg, JAMA and AMA Scientific Information and Multimedia (United States)

Peer Review in Theoretical Physics: An Electronic Study

Andrew Cohen, Physics Communications and Boston University (United States)

The Science Experience

Floyd Bloom, Science and the Scripps Research Institute (United States)

More Real-Life Experiences: Focus on Peer Review

Moderator: Iain Chalmers, UK Cochrane Centre (United Kingdom)

Electronic Peer Review of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

Lisa Bero, University of California, San Francisco, Cochrane Center (United States)

The Medical Journal of Australia Internet Peer-Review Trial

Martin Van Der Weyden, and Craig Bingham, Medical Journal of Australia (Australia)

Worldwide Needs, Expectations, and Possibilities

Moderator: Suzanne Fletcher

Western European Approach

Magne Nylenna, Journal of the Norwegian Medical Association (Norway)

The Indian Perspective

Samiran Nundy, National Medical Journal of India (India)

View From Russia

Saveli Bachtchinski, Cardiosphera Publishing House (Russia)

African Reactions

Daniel J Ncayiyana, South African Medical Journal (South Africa)

Roundtable Discusssion

All speakers of the day host group discussion with extensive audience participation.


Isabelle Boutron
PRC Speaker

Brian Nosek
PRC Speaker

Paul Glasziou
PRC Speaker

PRC Speaker

Tony Ross-Hellauer
PRC Speaker